Hamedan

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Hamadan
همدان
city
Ancient names: Ecbatana, Hangmatana
The Tomb of Avicenna

The Tomb of Avicenna
Official seal of Hamadan
Seal

Hamadan is located in Iran

Hamadan
Hamadan

Hamadan in Iran

Coordinates: 34°48′N 48°31′ECoordinates: 34°48′N 48°31′E
Country  Iran
Province Hamadan
County Hamadan
Bakhsh Central
Elevation 1,850 m (6,069 ft)
Population (2006)
 • Total 473,149
 • Rank 14th in Iran
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 • Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)
Website www.hamedan.ir

Hamadān[1] (pronounced [Hæmædɒːn]) or Hamedān (Persian: همدان‎‎, Hamadān) (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 473,149, in 127,812 families.[2]

Hamadan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities and one of the oldest in the world. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus, states that it was the capital of the Medes, around 700 BCE.

Hamadan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level.

The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360 kilometres (220 miles) southwest of Tehran.

The main symbols of this city are the Ganj Nameh inscription, the Avicenna monument and the Baba Taher monument. The majority of the population is Persian; however, there is a considerable Azerbaijani minority.[3][4][5]

History


Further information: Ecbatana

16th century map of Hamadan

The Ganjnameh, a cuneiform inscription in Hamadan

Silver Drachma of Parthian king Mithridates II made in Ecbatan mint

According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth, “Hamadan is a very old city. It may conceivably, but improbably, be mentioned in cuneiform texts from ca. 1100 BC, the time of Assyrian King Tiglath-pilesar I, but is certainly mentioned by Herodotus (i.98) who says that the king of Media Diokes built the city of Agbatana or Ekbatana in the 7th century BC.”[6]

Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median Empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty.

Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. (Ezra 6:2). Its ancient name of Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text. Because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents.

During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, and Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 633 the battle of Nahavand took place and Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs.

During the Buwayhids, the city suffered much damage. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadan. The city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of regional powers, was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion. During the Safavid era, the city thrived. Thereafter, in the 18th century, Hamadan was surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the work of Nader Shah e Afshar, Hamadan was cleared of invaders and, as a result of a peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans, it was returned to Iran. Hamadan stands on the Silk Road, and even in recent centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of its location on the main road network in the western region of Persia and Iran.

During World War I, the city was the scene of heavy fighting between Russian and Turko-German forces. It was occupied by both armies, and finally by the British, before it was returned to control of the Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918.

Climate


Hamadan province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of Zagros. The vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are influenced by strong winds, that almost last throughout the year.

Hamadan spot (light blue in center) in Hamadan province topography map

Panoramic view


Hamadan at night

People


According to the survey of 1997, the population of the province of Hamadan was 1,677,957.[8] Based on official statistics of 1997, the population of Hamadan county was 563,444 people. The majority of population are Persians with a sizeable minority of Azeris,[9] and a small group of Jews.[10]

Culture


The Saint Mary Church of Hamadan

Hamadan is home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is also said to be among the world’s oldest continuously inhabited cities.

Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather, ceramic, and carpets.

Iran’s Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical and cultural significance in the city of Hamadan alone.

A tomb believed by some to hold the remains of tomb the biblical Esther and her cousin Mordechai is located in Hamadan.

The scientist and writer known in the west as Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina) is buried in Hamadan. The 11th-century Iranian poet Baba Taher is also interred in Hamadan.

This city is also the birthplace of Badi’ al-Zaman al-Hamadani, author of the Maqamat.

Gallery